Int. J. Life. Sci. Scienti. Res., 3(6): 1509-1515, November 2017

Zika Virus: A Review
Areena Hoda Siddiqui1*, Chandranandani Negi2, Sunita Singh3, Shabnam Parveen4
1Consultant Microbiologist, Department of Lab Medicine, Sahara Hospital, Lucknow, India
2Lecturer, Department of Biotechnology, Dr. P. D. B. H Govt. P.G. College, Kotdwara, Uttarakhand, India
3Research Officer, Department of Microbiology, King George Medical University, Lucknow, India
4Regional Coordinator, International Journal of Life Sciences Scientific Research, India

*Address for Correspondence: Dr. Areena Hoda Siddiqui, Consultant Microbiologist, Department of Lab Medicine, Sahara Hospital, Lucknow, India

ABSTRACT- Zika virus is a mosquito transmitted flavivirus belongs to family Flaviviridae, which became the focus of an ongoing pandemic and public health emergency all around the world.  Zika virus (ZIKV) has 2 lineages: African and Asian. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses are thought to initially replicate in dendritic cells and then spread to lymph and therefore the blood stream. Risk for infection through blood transfusion, sexual practices, and perinatal transmission exists. The potential routes of perinatal transmission are all over delivery, breastfeeding and by close contact between the mother and newborn baby. ZIKV is often misdiagnosed with other infection like Dengue and Chikungunya because of similar clinical manifestation. The association between these conditions with Zika virus infection is still not confirmed and is under assessment. Since ZIKV has neither an effective treatment nor a vaccine is available, therefore the public health authority focuses on preventing infection, particularly in pregnant women and virus transmitted region. Zika infections in adults may result rarely in Guillain-Barre syndrome. World Health Organization and different health officers are working on the development of new projects and mosquito control methods to cope up with infection as there’s very less literature present on the pathologic process of the Zika virus to help interpret the clinical disease spectrum and target treatments to minimize or prevent infection. WHO/PAHO encourages the countries to set up and retain Zika virus infection detection, clinical management and community assertion strategies to decrease transmission of the virus. This review describes the current understanding of the epidemiology, transmission, clinical characteristics, and diagnosis of Zika virus infection, as well as the future outlook with regard to this disease.

Key Words: Zika virus (ZIKV), RNA virus, Endocytosis, Viral genome, Viral messenger RNA


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